Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Pairs of Species



  1. Environments themselves are heterogeneous, the more so to small scale organisms.
  2. Starting with a 'seed' community at a new location can lead to expanding diversity in such community later on.
  3. Again, the close matches between paired organisms is linked to evolution.
  4. Such mutualism among mutually evolved organisms can inspire a model for developing strong healthy relationships between neighboring nations, neighbors as well as people coexisting in the same community.
  5. Types of mutualism can inspire mutualisms in human communities and in the business and political worlds!


Make website, call it ecological inspirations.


  • "The existence of one type of organism in an area immediately diversifies it for others."
    • An organism may increase the diversity of its environment by contributing:
      • dung
      • urine
      • dead leaves
      • its dead body
    • Its body may serve as a place in which other species find homes
  • One species may have developed a dependence upon another
    • Relationships between consumers and their foods
    • Relationships between parasites and their hosts
  • mutualisms: mutual dependence among two species (stronger than one side dependence)
    • "The association of nitrogen-fixing bacteria with the roots of leguminous plants"
    • "Extremely precise relationships between insect pollinators and their flowers"
  • Organism-environment vs. organism-organism interactions:
    • When a population has been exposed to variations in the physical factors of the environment a tolerance may evolve. The physical factor cannot itself change or evolve as a result of the evolution of the organisms.
    • Coevolution: When members of two species interact, the change in each produces alterations in the life of the other
Eastern tiger swallowtail
Eastern tiger swallowtail


What makes different yet similar species evolve in the same environment?